Directions of research: basic research in the field of anatomy and cytology, growth biology, flowering and fruit-ing, photosynthesis, the use of growth regulators and mineral plant nutrition, as well as in the field of ecology and hydrobiology; applied research related to the improvement of horticultural crops (fruit plants, legumes, ornamental and medicinal plants) and plant protection. The research also covers the production economics of horticultural plants species and sustainable landscape revitalization of the Lublin Region.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Faculty may refer to:
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar). It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.
Rich windows that exclude the light,
And passages that lead to nothing.
Thomas Gray, A Long Story.
‘Architecture’ may at first appear to be a more fixed and finite term. It has a threedimensional, tangible, useable form. But questions remain about what can be considered architecture and what cannot, and by this I mean that we usually understand architecture to incorporate aesthetic as well as functional consideration into its structure. Anything that does not fall into this category can be described as ‘just a building’. This may seem too simple. Can architecture be determined solely by the use of refined architectural style – high or polite architecture instead of vernacular?
Dana Arnold, Reading Architectural History (2002), Ch. 1 : Reading the past : What is architectural history?
The hasty multitude
Admiring enter'd, and the work some praise,
And some the architect: his hand was known
In heaven by many a tower'd structure high,
Where scepter'd angels held their residence,
And sat as princes.
John Milton, Paradise Lost (1667; 1674), Book I, line 730.